Fermentation principle of biofertilizer project
The complex transformation of organic matter in compost under the action of microorganism can be divided into two processes: one is the mineralization of organic matter, that is, the complex organic matter is decomposed into simple substances, and finally carbon dioxide, water and mineral nutrients are generated.
The other is the humification process of organic matter, that is, the organic matter is decomposed and then synthesized to form a more complex special organic matter - humus.
The two processes are carried out at the same time, but in the opposite direction. Under different conditions, the intensity of each process is obviously different.
Matters needing attention affecting the quality of bio organic fertilizer :
1. Organic pollutants: these pollutants come from sludge, crop straw, etc.
2. Antibiotics: These are all kinds of antibiotics that are widely used in animal breeding, and most of them are excreted in the original form of drugs with feces and urine. Pig manure, chicken manure and other livestock wastes are generally used as bio organic fertilizer in agricultural production. The amount of antibiotics imported into the soil every year is no less than that of pesticides, which enter the food chain through soil fertilizer. Some veterinary drugs have higher toxicity with the metabolites discharged from feces.
3. Heavy metal pollution: the pollution sources are mainly mineral raw materials for production, waste acid for smelting, heavy metal polluted sludge, etc. Heavy metal pollution appears more in phosphate fertilizer products and compound fertilizer products. In addition, the content of inorganic impurities such as salt in some fertilizers is too high, which will not only cause soil salinization, but also cause seedling burning or yield reduction. The heavy metal pollution of some organic fertilizers is also very serious.
4. Another is pathogenic bacteria, which come from the addition of untested microbial strains, can cause human or animal infections. Unsafe factors in the use of bacteria are gradually expanding, and bacteria harmful to people, animals and plants may flow into the production process. Some problematic bacteria may flow into the organic fertilizer production process
, thus causing safety problems.